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The initial one to incorporated the new health quality of food, sex, level and an adjustable denoting nutritional position (overweight/obesity=Bmi Z-rating ?+1)

The initial one to incorporated the new health quality of food, sex, level and an adjustable denoting nutritional position (overweight/obesity=Bmi Z-rating ?+1)

All colleges was classified by Chilean Ministry off Knowledge towards about three accounts, namely reasonable-finding schools, mid-reaching colleges and you will highest-achieving schools, established the fresh new show of its youngsters in every SIMCE screening ( thirty-two ) .

Anthropometric measurements and you will health condition

Standardized procedures were used to measure students’ weight to the nearest 0·1 kg, using a Seca scale (SECA, Hamburg, Germany), and height to the nearest 0·1 cm, using a Holtain stadiometer. All instruments were verified before measuring each participant ( Reference Gibson 33 ) . BMI (kg/m 2 ) and height-for-age were evaluated, and Z-scores were obtained according to the references of the Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics (USA) ( Reference Kuczmarski, Ogden and Guo 34 ) . Nutritional status was defined as follows: underweight, BMI Z-score <?1; normal weight, BMI Z-score from ?1 to +1; overweight, BMI Z-score from +1 to +<2; and obesity, BMI Z-score ?+2.

Socio-financial reputation

Socio-monetary reputation (SES) is actually mentioned playing with a size based on Graffar’s modified method and therefore try adapted to Chilean metropolitan and you may outlying communities ( Site Alvarez, Muzzo and Ivaple into four socio-financial organizations: 1=high (0·step three %); 2=mid–highest (14·seven %); 3=center (step three8·3 %); 4=mid–reduced (45·six %); and 5=lower (step one·step one %). But not, within studies we blended this type of five categories towards the three: higher (1+2), center (3) and lowest (4+5) SES.

Analytical research

Statistical analysis included performing ? 2 tests to compare categorical variables, and ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for comparison of continuous variables. After performing bivariate analyses with each potential confounding variable, including sex, grade, nutritional status, SES and school’s performance, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between the nutritional quality of snacks at school (exposure) and individual academic performance in Mathematics and Language (outcome). In each case, the probability of passing the test was estimated using three models. In the second model, SES was added. Finally, a fully adjusted model contained all mentioned covariates with the addition of a variable denoting the school’s academic performance. Because the variable school’s performance was partly derived from the outcome variables, this adjustment may cause underestimation of the association, so we included models with and without adjustment for school’s performance. A P value of <0·05 denoted statistical significance. Data were processed using the statistical software package Stata SE for Windows version 12·0.


The try is made up from 13·step 1 ( sd dos·3) year-dated men (52 %) and you will women (forty-eight %) teenagers out of low (44·step 3 %), center (39·six %) and highest (step 16·1 %) SES. They attended 5th (51·nine %) and you may 9th (48·step one %) values in public areas (34·8 %), partly backed (57·8 %) and personal colleges (7·cuatro %) throughout the Santiago Urban Area. For health reputation, forty five % from members had been obese or over weight. Almost 1 / 2 of the young (forty eight %) attended highest-reaching colleges, whereas 30 % and you can 23 % attended middle- and you may lowest-finding schools, correspondingly.

Regarding try, 56 % out-of college students reported use of factors in the snack date which were filled with weight, glucose, sodium and effort. Thirty-half dozen per cent was in fact thought about to have bad-to-fair snack, while just 8 % was indeed thought to consume compliment facts during the snack go out at college. Desk step one comes with the descriptive statistics of one’s sample. Mediocre opinions out-of results within the Code and you may Mathematics was basically somewhat ong people with straight down nutritional quality of food in school (P=0·01). New express away from college students ingesting unhealthy food in school are somewhat higher certainly one of 9th graders (59 %; P=0·040), college students going to lower-achieving universities (61 %; P=0·036), including one of underweight and normal-lbs professionals (69 % and you will 62 %, respectively; P=0·006).